Education in Russia is a branch of a socio-cultural environment that ensures the transfer of knowledge and the formation of skills. According to a number of indicators, education in Russian Federation exceeds the level of many highly developed countries of the world. This refers to the indicators of the level of education of the population, the availability of educational institutions, the number of teaching staff, schoolchildren and students. The main task of the Russian educational policy is to ensure the modern quality of education on the basis of preserving its fundamental nature and compliance with the needs of the individual, society and the state. The Russian Federation inherited from the USSR a developed education system that had a complex structure. During the years of Soviet power, high results were achieved in a number of indicators, in particular, one of the main indicators of citizens’ satisfaction in compulsory education – literacy (people who could read and write, or only read were considered literate in population censuses).
Russia proclaimed the direction of education a priority. In 1992, the Law of the Russian Federation “On Education in Russia” was adopted, which formulated the basic principles of state policy in the field of education: the humanistic nature of education; priority of universal values, human life and health, free development of personality; education of citizenship, diligence, respect for the rights and freedoms of a person, love for the environment, the Motherland, the family; accessibility of education; the secular nature of education in state and municipal educational institutions; state guarantees of free pre-school, general and primary vocational education; the obligation to obtain basic general education, etc. By law, the education system is a combination of a network of educational institutions of various organizational and legal forms, types and types, successive educational programs and state educational standards, as well as educational authorities. The following levels of education have been formed in the Russian Federation: pre-school education; general education (primary, basic secondary, full secondary, additional); vocational education (primary, secondary, higher, additional). The development of all levels of education was affected by a decrease in funding. Since 1992, budget expenditures on education have decreased by almost a third (in comparable prices).
The level of education in Russia of the population by age groups (per 1,000 people of the corresponding age group, according to the data of the All-Russian population census 2002). Since the beginning of the 1990s. The education system in the Russian Federation is in the process of renewal, improvement and modernization, pursuing the main goal – the formation of a qualitatively new education system in Russia that meets the needs of a post-industrial information society, global world processes and is able to compete with the educational systems of advanced, developed countries of the world. Priority areas: provision of state guarantees of affordable and equal opportunities for citizens of Russia to get an education; achievements of modern education quality; increasing the professionalism of educators; development of education as an open social system while increasing the role of all participants in the general educational process – students, teachers, parents. The complex of socio-economic measures to ensure accessibility of education at all its levels provides for: the division of powers and responsibilities between federal state authorities, state authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and local governments; giving municipal educational schools the status of state educational institutions; introduction of targeted targeted payments for students from low-income families; creating a system of state subsidies to expand opportunities for higher and secondary vocational education; increase academic and social scholarships, etc.