Land development in the Russian Federation requires certain documents relating to territorial planning and townplanning zoning. These documents are developed at federal, regional and local levels. However, the most important documents containing planning and zoning regulations of land in Russia are known as a Master Plan (‘Генеральный план’) and Land Use and Development Rules (‘Правила землепользования и застройки’) which are developed at a local level. This is land zoning law.
A Master Plan contains schemes on functional zones and general provisions on the territorial planning of the municipal unit. Land Use and Development Rules contain schemes on territorial zones (eg, industrial, residential, business and administrative, etc.) and detailed rules and
restrictions regarding their development (ie the list of permitted uses of the land for each territorial zone, the permitted height of buildings that can be placed within each territorial zone, etc.).
Although the Russian Town-Planning Code, which creates the system of planning and zoning documentation in Russia, entered into force more than 10 years ago, not all municipal units have adopted Master Plans and Land Use and Development Rules. The law established certain deadlines
by which such documentation had to be developed. Please read more about Russian land zoning law.
These deadlines are continually being pushed back and currently the deadline is 1 July 2016. After this deadline, it will be prohibited to issue construction permits or change the permitted use of a land plot without Land Use and Development Rules being in place.
In addition, there are certain documents which determine the layout and limits of the possible development of a particular district or even a land plot, such as a Site Design Plan (‘Проект планировки территории’) and a Development Plan of a land plot (‘Градостроительный план земельного участка’). Zoning land law. Such documents are usually developed upon the initiative of investors and for the purposes of a particular project.
Construction or re-construction works require the necessary permitting documents (a construction permit). Russian land zoning law.
In order to obtain a construction permit, it is necessary to fle with the competent authorities an application together with supporting documentation evidencing that all other requirements for the development have been satisfed (such as the acquisition of all relevant rights to the land in question, the approval of the design documentation and arrangements for the development to be supplied with utilities). Once all the necessary documents have been submitted to the relevant authority, a construction permit should be granted within 10 days. Beginning construction
works without obtaining the necessary permitting documents may lead to the building being deemed to be an ‘unauthorised structure’. As a general rule, a company which has built an unauthorised structure does not acquire any rights to this structure, is not entitled to enter into any transactions in relation to this structure and should demolish it at its own expense. This is Russian land zoning law.